By adopting the UNFCCC, governments around the world have set themselves the long-term goal of “stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic disturbances to the climate system.” 1 The adoption of this objective has been an essential guide to the intergovernmental process and its contracting parties in the fight against climate change. There is no compensation for victims of climate disasters, but only for companies and insurance companies for which they must pay premiums. The NDC partnership was launched at COP22 in Marrakech to improve cooperation so that countries have access to the technical knowledge and financial support they need to achieve major climate and sustainable development goals. The NDC partnership is led by a steering committee made up of industrialized and developing countries and international institutions and is supported by a support unit organized by the World Resources Institute and based in Washington, D.C. and Bonn, Germany. The NDC partnership is co-chaired by the governments of Costa Rica and the Netherlands and has 93 Member States, 21 institutional partners and 10 associate members. InDCs become CNDs – nationally determined contributions – as soon as a country formally adheres to the agreement. There are no specific requirements as to how or how many countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of the targets set by different countries. As a result, the scale and ambition of national plans vary widely, largely reflecting each country`s capacity, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has committed to cleaning up its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 from 2005 levels.
India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels. As shown in the graph below, the group found that most major polluters make little or no effort to achieve their goals. According to Climate Action`s calculations, “inadequate critical countries” have not even committed to significantly reducing emissions on paper. Only seven countries have made commitments or efforts to achieve the paris agreement goal. Scientists have become more confident and confident about attributing these extremes to global warming. In the case of a deadly Japanese heat wave in 2019, modelers discovered that this simply wouldn`t have happened without human influence on the climate. Climate activists, negotiators and journalists have been appeased after two weeks of intense negotiations on a long-awaited international climate pact.