Gorbachev and his family were placed under house arrest by General Igor Maltsev, commander-in-chief of the Soviet air defence forces. Gorbachev and his wife Raisa later said they expected the time of death. Although outside communications were interrupted, Gorbachev was able to come to Moscow and confirm that he was fit and good. Gorbachev`s personal bodyguards remained loyal throughout the episode, and were able to create a simple receiver so that the endangered president could know what was going on beyond the walls of the dacha. The BBC and Voice of America broadcasts kept Gobechev informed of the coup`s progress and the international response. On 17 July 1990, Leonid Kravchuk was elected Speaker of Parliament to succeed Ivashko. On 30 July, Parliament adopted a resolution on military service that ordered Ukrainian soldiers to return to Ukrainian territory “in regions of national conflict such as Armenia and Azerbaijan”. On 1 August, Parliament voted overwhelmingly in favour of dismantling the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. On 3 August, it passed a law on the economic sovereignty of the Ukrainian Republic. On 19 August, the first Ukrainian Catholic liturgy in 44 years was celebrated in St.
George`s Cathedral. On 5 and 7 September the International Symposium on the Great Famine was held in Kiev from 1932 to 1933. On September 8, the first “Youth for Christ” was held in Lviv since 1933 with 40,000 participants. From 28 to 30 September, the Greens held their founding congress. On 30 September, nearly 100,000 people marched in Kiev to protest against Gorbachev`s new trade union contract. In the spring of 1989, for the first time since 1917, when they elected the new Congress of People`s Deputies, the citizens of the Soviet Union exercised a democratic decision, albeit limited. The uncensored live television coverage of the legislature`s deliberations was equally important, where people were questioned and held accountable for previously feared communist leaders. This example fuelled a limited experience of democracy in Poland, which quickly led to the fall of the communist government in Warsaw this summer – triggering uprisings that toppled communism in the other five Warsaw Pact countries before the end of 1989, the year of the fall of the Berlin Wall.
The declaration continues and lists three reasons why this Union is a necessary step. First, the consequences of the civil war have destroyed many of the republics` economies and reconstruction, in a newly socialist way, is proving difficult without closer economic cooperation. Second, foreign threats continue to hover over the socialist camp and its sovereignty requires an alliance for defence. Finally, the ideological factor that Soviet domination is internationalist and pushes the working masses to unite within a single socialist family. These three factors justify the union in a single state that would guarantee prosperity, security and development. Q. So you could say that you pulled the trigger, because jelzin only started expressing himself after you. The intentionalistic reports assert that the collapse of the Soviet was not inevitable and that it was the result of the politics and decisions of certain individuals (usually Gorbachev and Yeltsin). Historian Archie Browns The Gorbachev, who asserts that Gorbachev was the main power of Soviet politics, at least during the period 1985-1988, is a characteristic example of intentional writing and has even, in turn, gone far beyond political reforms and developments instead of being guided by events.  This was particularly the case with the politics of perestroika and glasnost, market initiatives and foreign policy, as detached by political scientist George Breslaur and called Gorbachev a “man of events”.  In a slightly different way, David Kotz and Fred Weir asserted that the Soviet elites were responsible for encouraging both nationalism and capitalism from which they could benefit personally (this is also manifested by their continued presence at the higher economic and political levels of the post-republics).