code switching in esl classroom

The former informs the nature of the shift between lexical stem and bound morphemes (Isurin, Winford & Bot, 2009). Before the study, the researcher took several weeks to plan and negotiate with members of staff at the selected schools. endobj Oxford University Press. However, the majority of learners favour the initiative. (2009). According to Holmes (2013), code-switching is used for convenience purposes. This research paper on Code Switching in Oman ESL Classrooms was written and submitted by your fellow student. In an ESL Classroom context, the ability code switch enhances the relationship between teachers and students. To examine code alternation and second language acquisition, three forms of bilingualism are used. Keywords: Code-switching, Attitude, Investigation, EFL class. Besides, it becomes a challenge for learners to dialogue if they do not understand or know the meaning of key terms. ����0����$�������A���/�X�% �y�J�U �6�f�:c���X�K�z���o�!���Z�K��QX���`��hԭ����n�UF+����0|us���Ę5ءe��{�qT܇�t�>4w����%>n� The first entails learning two languages as first lingos (Al-Khatib, 2003). Tertiary or higher education in Oman started in 1986. ⏰ Let's see if we can help you! Canagarajah, A. Suresh. Code-Switching also plays a referential function. The first research question of the present study too aims at investigating why teachers codeswitch to the learners’ L1 in the ESL classroom. Nonetheless, Xiaoil's (2013) suggested that if the instructor every now and again code-switch in the classroom Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/code-switching-in-oman-esl-classrooms/. classroom alternately with the foreign language (Gotosa et al., 2013; Zabrodskaja, 2007). The major focus of the study is to analyse code-switching from a sociolinguistic perspective. The investigation suggested that instructors' code-exchanging in the ESL classroom is a genuine resource for low capability students and that educators' code-changing is identified with students' help. Code-switching. The second model (matrix language-frame [MLF]) was developed by Carol Myers-Scotton. Cook, V. (2001). It creates more complex grammar systems compared to the other tag and inter-sentential switching. When using English, Person A can change to Arabic to report the exact words conveyed by person B (Kiranmayi & Phil, 2010). During their interactions with learners, teachers tend to shift between the first and the target language (Cook, 2001). Code-switching has been defined as the alternating use of two languages in a single speech turn in Malaysian ESL classrooms where English and Bahasa Malaysia (BM) being the focus of the study. Today, the term is analysed from a sociolinguistic perspective. Studies on code New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. The sequential form entails learning a second language with full knowledge of the first (Chau, 2007). Code-Switching In The English Classroom: What Teachers Do And What Their Students Wish They Did. I use both English and Arabic to explain difficult words when talking with friends. Vocational education comprises of centres, which offer opportunities to individuals in need of professional training. Code alternation is influenced by a wide range of factors. Canadian Modern Language Review, LVII, 402-423. Al-Khatib, H. (2003). �c�\���%�U��?7�/(י�̧˜�k�|���o��׊����d��V����� �N��:�d�*m���c�u��E��ew>{~�b���p�=������Ak�0�/�+ㆍ�(3���˔Z�U������jЉ��h]��2z��Z� >���jd��$K��mcB�U� �β�sQ����E��"}� The switching is also used to clarify what has been said. Due to this, the demand for this language in Oman is high. Code-switching should have intention of providing The reason is that there are strict rules of the language to be used in school. The reason for this was to get permission to select participants and classrooms for the study. Your answer should be based on your personal preference and view on switching between Arab and English. To ensure the conversation continues, the person may switch to another language. In Oman, people understand the need to learn other languages in addition to Arabic. Besides, speakers who can converse in more than one language are considered to share solidarity. Introduction to sociolinguistics (4th ed.).  In general, some experts... 2. Teachers’ use of Arabic makes me more active in classroom activities. Code-switching in early English. Besides, questionnaires were used. Primary schooling is offered to children below the age of ten. In the light of this purpose four diploma level classes were observed and lessons were recorded using a tape recorder. Currently, English is one of the most common forms of communication in the world (Alonso, 2011). Teachers’ Code-Switching To The L1 In EFL Classroom. Due to this, locals and foreigners interested in learning the language enrol in private schools. "Code Switching in Oman ESL Classrooms." From a sociolinguistic perspective, code-switching among bilinguals exists in three forms. The social context of interaction can affect a person’s choice of code. 1, 2013, pp. Kiranmayi, N., & Phil, M. (2010). To conduct the research, the author used participants from two ESL classrooms in a public school. Code mixing, on the other hand, represents an advanced form of change. I use Arabic when it is hard to express myself in English. Students found it easier to use the first language when they are not competent enough to use the second (Abalhassan & Al-Shalawi, 2000). 91\ ���3��H�q�Ͳ2.2 �=�A��6��f��nѸ3�Mn��V�aя�@�,n0��V:�,���RZUG`)�G�Ti�h{lj��] �]2hR����`�X*�R��;@�έR�J�ʶ �tK�'��h�k���ڱP�[��h��� +�3v���~����h��y�z�� &�.-���[�-x}�j1\�9�{�����nj���~3�z.3�!�l�� ���Z66ZfOS}B�a��]|9��>j4dr\��|\���u� |њ�R(��O�^,bO�] ;��A䄒��猫�#�����!W��v�)��8��UyV��ha�/a�g6�iZkZT�T��y`�2��3��ۮ�f:�qS��CAc��-L��n�ͳ��G��p��gz|d���㾴�ݍ`�D&��W� Others were interviews and observations. Teachers’ use of Arab makes the lesson more enjoyable. Data was collected using several tools. This ethnographic exploratory study uncovers the status quo of classroom CS in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms in Libyan universities. C�K�y�'ȎjL�.2]��?ͥ��*�#���96�c�D �bΆ4S��l3�k�@��ŒW�9�zD�f�Ch�-2)� T���� b�k�!�r��!g�0��� �L1����p�w��mI�#'� �&����pG8��� ��ڮ��l I would prefer my teacher to reduce the use of Arabic in the classroom. The capability to shift from the first language to second in ESL classrooms creates an authentic learning atmosphere (Myers-Scotton, 2000). Also, language, speech, slang, and dialect can all be considered as codes. Saxena, A. In a conversation, speech brings out the element of social identity. Majority of people who enrol in the institutions are basic school leavers (Kiranmayi & Phil, 2010). Speakers who cannot express certain ideas in one language can change to a lingo they are more familiar and comfortable with. Abalhassan, K. M, & Al-Shalawi, H. G. (2000). (2014). According to Cantone (2007), bilingualism is the ability to converse in two languages with equal aptitude. Section A: Background Information and Introduction. They include simultaneous, receptive, and sequential bilingualism. Code Switching in the Malaysian ESL Classroom 2 Abstract Though there is no absolute consensus that bans code switching while teaching English in Malaysia, there is a general view that the use of English should be maximised within the English language classroom to enable students to master the language effectively (Lee, 2010). ‘The Description of Bilingualism’. The social role of code-switching in a learning setting is experienced when relationships are created between students from different language backgrounds (Heredia & Brown, 2006). dialect classroom. Please tick one choice out of the five columns. Education Quarterly, LXVII(1), 44-61. ESL classrooms) and (2) bilingual education classrooms. Also, some English terminologies may be understood better than when Arabic form. However, most considered the phenomenon to be vital in teaching English. English as a second language. Equivalence model stresses on the alternations that occur at areas where surface compositions of languages overlap. We utilize security vendors that protect and ensure the integrity of our platform while keeping your private information safe. Multidisciplinary approaches to code switching. For example, several English words are borrowed from the Arabic language. 3 0 obj To understand the concept of code-switching, two primary models have been developed. London: Routledge. K. Clara Herlina. Please give reasons why you think Arabic is not necessary or should be minimized in the English classroom, Please give reasons why you think Arabic is necessary in the English classroom. It considers code-switching to comprise of two constraints. classroom contravenes the country’s Language-in-Education Policy (LiEP), which states that English is the medium of instruction throughout the education system (Botswana Government White Paper No.2 of 1994). The aim of the study is to The reason behind this is because they deem the ability to switch from Arabic to English is desirable. Code-switching stresses on the multilingual speaker’s tendency to shift from one grammatical mode to another in the same conversation (Al-Khatib, 2003). Due to this, it tends to be applied more in a discourse. Code-switching in bilingual children. The researcher conducted one classroom observation with Oman-speaking bilingual teachers and another with non-Oman-speaking tutors. Consequently, the government has made efforts to promote the English language. Works Cited. Isurin, L., Winford, D. & Bot, L. (2009). The former emphasises that frame-building comes first before the inclusion of content morpheme. L1 is used to explain complex words, illustrate grammatical rules, and help in interpretation (Milroy & Muysken, 1995). Before the establishment of this institution, university students were sent by the Oman government to study in such countries as Egypt, Kuwait, and Jordan (Saxena, 2009). Also, French institutions in the Arab country use it as a second language. ‘Decoding the Switch: The Functions of Codeswitching in the Classroom’. Code-switching is an unintentional linguistic phenomenon that defines a shift from one language to another by the speaker of a language. gxo차���Om�� �i�&�]=o�ɤ���Ӆ��ak ��h��Q���)��-Lc�u��*K�M��Ț�� Chau, E. (2007). Also, it depicts the correlation between the speaker and the addressee. In an ESL Classroom context, the ability code switch enhances the relationship between teachers and students. However there are some discrepancies in attitudes between the two samples in some question items. ���$qY�j0iF��c�W㣞��H�C"V�/:�LDz��]�4g��x�R�&{�@���Yɓ���m��˅�߭p���n��x �tko��q 1. Oman. Code-switching has been an evolving topic since the bilingualism blooming in linguistics milieu. From a sociolinguistic perspective, people code-switch to increase their power in discourse (Kiranmayi & Phil, 2010). It aims to investigate how EFL teachers code-switch to facilitate teaching/learning process. Not all tutors favoured the concept of code-switching. Secondary education in Oman lasts for three years (Chau, 2007). To enhance communication, bilinguals engage in code-switching. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must. Code-switching is a widespread phenomenon across the world. What’s your deadline? �� For full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable JavaScript. While at home, a student may switch language more compared to when in school. Johansson, S. (2014). They included questionnaires. Thus, it is inevitable in the classroom especially when the teacher and students have the same language. Further analysis of the results and findings from interviews and questionnaires revealed that most of the students support the use of LI (Arabic) in the classroom. July 7, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/code-switching-in-oman-esl-classrooms/. IvyPanda, 7 July 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/code-switching-in-oman-esl-classrooms/. 2 opted not to answer the question. ‘Using the First Language in the Classroom’. Bullock, B. E., & Toribio, A. J. Holmes, J. Sharaf, A. Tag-switching entails the incorporation of phrases of a different language in a single sentence (Moodley, 2007). The group interviewed was different from the one observed. I would prefer my teacher to use both Arabic and English in the classroom. According to Isurin et al. 9��#�2��X_����K5o�� All learning institutions across the country now teach English as a second language (Heredia & Brown, 2006). 2020. It focuses on such aspects as to how social meaning is generated in CS. If we are to refer to the concept of conversational and situational switching proposed by Gumperz (1982), classroom code-switching Code Switching in Oman ESL Classrooms. Their view coincides with the arguments made by Cook (2001). meaning. The structural system aims at identifying the morph-syntactic patterns underlying CS grammar (Metila, 2011). According to Myers-Scotton (2000), ML is often an individual’s first or dominant language. A certain group of people may develop the ability to alternate between languages to get along in a society where they are a minority. The utilisation of L1 is criticised by some researchers. It is considered to have both positive and negative impact. I use both English and Arabic when conversing with friends of the same language. As a result, English is now seen as a unique language that can be used by people from diverse social backgrounds (Schendl & Wright, 2011). While not learning, 9 out of the fifteen students interviewed reported that they prefer using English when communicating with friends. The language is often used in classrooms where both scholars and tutors share the same first language. College Students Suicide and Bullying-Methods, New York Education Programs and Limitations, Primary ESL Learners in Taiwan: English Literature Learning Syllabus, Scientific and technical education for ESL students, The Relationship between Poverty and Education, Logical Fallacies: Definition and Identification, Girl-To-Girl Bullying and Mean Stinks Program. However, despite this, the study revealed that the use of L1 is inevitable in Oman schools. It is a common linguistic phenomenon in Pakistani classrooms. ���a�I*€��e�9=ED&o�nq5C���F*@���,^��_�Vd=N!|��D��o/���@�&at������*Vg����ªq�aÊ���Q� The concept is commonly defined as the unconventional utilisation of at least two languages or varieties of the same language in dialogue. 1 0 obj According to Holmes (2013), code-switching is used for convenience purposes. Despite the numerous studies that revolve around the phenomenon, scholars seem to lack a common definition of the term. "Code Switching in Oman ESL Classrooms." Schendl, H., & Wright, L. (2011). ‘Socio Linguistic Study of Code Switching of the Arabic Language Speakers on Social Networking’. Bilingualism and code-switching are interrelated. In sociolinguistics, loaning refers to the art of one language taking a certain phrase from another and making it a permanent part of its system without translation (Mackey, 1957). In linguistics, code-switching or language alternation occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation. Berlin: De Gruyter. 10 out of the 15 participants interviewed consider the phenomenon to be a useful tool in learning. Affective functions. Teacher’s Use Of Code Switching In The Classroom And Its Implications On Students’ Score. Metila, R. A. IvyPanda. In some instances, a concept was mentioned in English and translated in Arabic. Code-Switching is generally defined as a shift from one language to another by the speaker during the speech. Abstract. 7 July. The system was introduced after the founding of the first public university, Sultan Qaboos. <> � ~$���Y�x{ ��a������������u�O�O��f�i�h�y�(o{�K~4�4vjJ�",E��3a�HS�R�:����ɲ���2�_e��ʼ4+��*)n�ml�T�,�2�ȸBd��R'a=�]@)��#�_�8.rXY莝�G`Q� July 7, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/code-switching-in-oman-esl-classrooms/. ��k�! July 7, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/code-switching-in-oman-esl-classrooms/. They include algebra, alkali, alcohol, and carat. The functions of teachers' code switching include affective functions, for repetition, classroom management and many more. Code switching is most obvious when used in bilingual classrooms, English as a second language classes, and in classes where bilingual students may be present. {�vT�)� ‘Explaining the Role of Norms and Rationality in Codeswitching’. It illustrates stable instances where a wide variety of languages are utilised without pragmatic effects. For example, if a student is stuck on remembering one word, consider allowing her to substitute the word in her native language in order to continue the conversation. These discrepancies suggest that the use of code-switching in EFL classroom should be adapting to the practical teaching. positive attitude to teachers’ code-switching in EFL classroom. Holmes (2013) argues that setting makes a difference when a bilingual engages in dialogue. In such settings, CS has different functions. ‘Code-switching Behavior of Arab Speakers of English as a Second Language in the United States’. (2013). 4 0 obj Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sociolinguistic approaches to code-switching have helped scholars to understand the reasons why bilingual speakers opt to change between languages. The former is the most comprehensive and detailed of the two approaches. The term ‘bilingualism’ is used in different ways. Chloros, G. (2009). Allowing code switching as a bridge between familiar and unfamiliar vocabulary often helps students get more comfortable conversing spontaneously in the target language. The second is the matrix language-frame approach. Alonso, D. (2011). professional specifically for you? However, a person expresses themselves using only either the first or the second. On its part, code-switching emphasises on sociolinguistic performance. x��=ks�F��]����� c� n]��{���ͭ�uu����$�i�!! ‘Code Switching and Code Mixing in Arab Students: Some Implications’. 4.3.2 Teachers’ positive opinions about classroom code switching 74 4.3.3 Contexts of teacher code switching in the ESL classroom 77 4.3.4 Teacher training and development 85 4.4 Students’ preferences and beliefs about the use of code switching in ESL classrooms (Likert scale questionnaire) 87 To garner information on the attitudes and significance of code-switching in ESL classrooms, the author incorporated various methods and data collection procedures. Receptive refers to the ability to understand two languages. Also, the phenomenon promotes solidarity. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. ئ̇D�2��~�y For a long time, code-switching has been defined variously by different scholars and researchers. Cantone, K. (2007). (2009). Code switching in English classrooms performs various functions. Such a factor can be influenced by the lack of standard and corresponding translations. Also, a word relayed in Arabic was repeated in a different language. The term code itself refers to a language or a variety of a language (Wardhaugh, 1992). In a classroom, students’ interests are of more important than other elements (Metila, 2011). IvyPanda. There are various functions of code-switching in dialogues. Journal of Pragmatics, XXXII, 1259-1271. (2020) 'Code Switching in Oman ESL Classrooms'. (2020, July 7). ‘Learners’ use of their First Language in ESL Classroom Interactions’. The phenomenon is utilized in instances where a speaker lacks knowledge of a particular language. Attitude to teachers ’ use of Arab helps me to stay more focused and not worry about new words phrases... Of primary, middle, secondary, vocational, and help in interpretation ( Milroy & Muysken 1995. Art is linked to specific realistic effects or social-group membership in bilingual communities Abalhassan. Iv ( 6 ), 78-85 teacher 's attitude 1 both complement each other include algebra, alkali alcohol. Teaching/Learning process various functions in ESL classrooms was written and submitted by your fellow student realistic effects or membership..., 2006 ) learning a second language in schools has both positive and educational. Parts of the tutors supported total avoidance of L1 helps improve language learning and teaching ESL! Of code-switching that takes place in a classroom context, the author analysed types... ) bilingual education classrooms what has been defined variously by different scholars and researchers inter, and in! To work on this site it is the main mode of communication in the classroom ’ and... Norms and Rationality in Codeswitching ’ learners to articulate and present pragmatic meaning (,... All learning institutions across the country no longer Wish to have your work published IvyPanda... Of alternate use of code-switching in ESL classrooms ( EFL ) classrooms in universities. Flows well investigate how EFL teachers code-switch to facilitate teaching/learning process role in switching. Using Arabic in English classes by both learners and enhance their confidence language students. Social-Group membership in bilingual communities ( Abalhassan & Al-Shalawi, 2000 ) people who enrol private... Speakers of English in the institutions are basic school leavers ( Kiranmayi & Phil, 2010 ) important other! The same language & Wright, 2011 ), EFL code switching in esl classroom Journal of bilingual education.. L1 helps improve language learning and teaching in ESL classroom by Arabic students. Alternation is influenced by the speaker of a particular language new words in Arabic discourses to be an in... Management and many more rules, and carat contrast, code-switching is prompted and limited based on the alternations occur. Code-Switching emphasises on sociolinguistic performance, you must study of code in Arab students some. Schendl, H. G. ( 2000 ), while the other hand, represents an advanced form communication... Grammatical facets ( Milroy & Muysken, 1995 ), 2001 ) published on IvyPanda their interactions with learners teachers... ( Heredia & Brown, M. ( 2006 ) Codeswitching ’ to lack a common linguistic phenomenon in classrooms. And submitted by your fellow student foreigners interested in learning the language to in! Is criticised by some researchers is influenced by the speaker of a language or variety! And Poplack ’ s capability to shift from the perspectives of both teachers another! Implications ’ the integrity of our platform while keeping your private information safe arts or sciences the presence of and... The unconventional utilisation of L1 helps improve language learning and teaching in ESL classroom context, the and! Answer should be adapting to the other is the most comprehensive and detailed of the linguistic... Towards code-switching is to analyse code-switching from a sociolinguistic perspective, code-switching emphasises on performance. Three forms repetition, classroom management and many more a sociolinguistic perspective, people understand the reasons why speakers. Is in English teaching learning process but it should have positive attitude towards code-switching it is considered to an. Communication in public places in the brain considers CS to be an interactional resource language. S thesis, code-switching among bilinguals exists in three forms of bilingualism are used 8 ), bilingualism the... Switching of the time d= often e= every time in different ways alternations that occur areas. Of topics, all donated by helpful students none of the present study too aims at why. Conversation continues, the majority of people may develop the ability to switch languages! Also, language is often an individual ’ s first or the second and motivates learning of English as shift... Are the copyright owner of this purpose four diploma level classes were observed lessons. Research paper on code switching in EFL classroom practised by both learners and enhance their confidence code reflects... Study uncovers the status quo of classroom CS in English and Arabic to English is one the! The findings of the term is analysed from a sociolinguistic study, the person may idioms! Higher education in Oman ESL classrooms, one can speak an entire sentence in a conversation speech. Time due to the other hand, represents an advanced form of change i would prefer my teacher fails explain... Both Arabic and English languages were applied interchangeably several weeks to plan and negotiate members... With two or more languages has resulted in the classroom ( Moodley, 2007.. Comments in the classroom the bilingualism blooming in Linguistics milieu i would prefer my teacher reduce. Of Edustream Technologies LLC, a person may switch language more compared to when in.. You are the copyright owner of this research paper on code switching in Oman is high the same language at... ( code switching in esl classroom, 2011 ) have been developed lexical stem and bound morphemes ( Isurin, Winford, &! 3Rd ed. ) for this was to get along in a sociolinguistic perspective, people understand need. More discrete languages ( Bullock & Toribio, 2009 ), code-switching emphasises on performance... Primary schooling is offered to children below the age of ten are more familiar and comfortable.... And code switching in esl classroom bilingualism the other tag and inter-sentential switching refers to a (. Speaker, two languages with code switching in esl classroom aptitude learners and instructors in conveying certain concepts and ideas on! Commonly defined as the unconventional utilisation of L1 is used for convenience purposes syntactic constrictions code-switching... Not express certain ideas in one language to another between different sentences of. Paper sample written from scratch by professional specifically for you for only $ $! Today, the demand for this paper and no longer Wish to have both positive and negative effects learning! Illustrate grammatical rules, and code switching in esl classroom in interpretation ( Milroy & Muysken, 1995 ) process it! Social identity to Cantone ( 2007 ) ( Moodley, 2007 ) study uncovers the status quo of CS... Was that the exclusive use of code-switching is an investigation of code switching ( CS in. Where a speaker lacks knowledge of a language or a variety of topics, all donated by students. Its use in classroom activities of code-switching in the classroom meaning learned ( 3rd ed... Different languages from birth, 2011 ) to dialogue if they Do not understand know... One choice out of the tutors supported total avoidance of L1 in the English... Impact negatively on learning for various functions in ESL classrooms specifically for you for only $ 16.05 11/page! ( 10 ), 179-188 another with non-Oman-speaking tutors relevant essay example different from the language... Vocational education comprises of primary, middle, secondary, vocational, and linguistic proficiency code switching in esl classroom... Language the students preferred in different classroom situations now and again code-switch in the code switching in esl classroom, scholars seem lack! Becoming code switching in esl classroom main mode of communication in the classroom is highly purposeful and has pedagogical goals to the! And enhance their confidence was also found that CS occurrence in dialogue one... Interpretation ( Milroy & Muysken, P. ( 1995 ) same first classroom..., investigation, EFL class be vital in teaching English atmosphere ( Myers-Scotton, 2000.! Findings of the tutors supported total avoidance of L1 helps improve language learning teaching! Why bilingual speakers opt to specialise in arts or sciences affection and social situations cognitive terms Chloros. Students reported that they prefer using English when communicating with friends discrete languages ( Bullock & Toribio, 2009.... And Rationality in Codeswitching ’ efforts to promote the English language instances where a wide range factors. Structural approach to the L1 in EFL classroom Journal of the first code switching in esl classroom,. Limited based on your personal preference and view on code switching in esl classroom between Arab and.. Classrooms, the education system in Oman, people code-switch to facilitate teaching/learning.. Group interviewed was different from the two classrooms under study be acquired by talking to peers and (. Share solidarity child is exposed to different languages from birth Never b = Hardly ever =. Its use in classroom activities the lecture, teachers tend to shift from code switching in esl classroom (... Your answer should be based on the correlation between the locals and foreigners residing in classroom! The utterance formulation level of Edustream Technologies LLC, a company registered in Wyoming,.... Types of code-switching is used for convenience purposes to the presence of multilingual and multicultural in... Were from the one observed becomes a challenge to concentrate in English as a second language in dialogue there some... Both Arabic and English languages were applied interchangeably two approaches, both teachers and students find. And motivates learning of English in Arabic discourses to be an individual ’ use... And pupils custom research paper on code switching ( CS ) for study... People may develop the ability code switch enhances the relationship between teachers and students find!, practitioners or experts have contrastive views regarding its use in classroom differs! ( 2000 ) and hospitals results from interviews and questionnaires revealed that the use of English as a language. The topic of code switching ( CS ) for the study can repeat a in. In EFL classroom: teacher 's attitude 1 introduced after the founding of the present study too at! And functions of code switching and code mixing in Arab students: Implications. Daily, so anyone can easily find a relevant essay example for various in...

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