Steps in the Literature Review Process Given the particular processes involved in systematic reviews, meta-analysis and meta-synthesis, the focus of the remainder of this article is on the steps involved in undertaking a traditional or narrative review of the literature (Table 2). Protocol registration at an early stage guarantees transparency in the research process and protects from duplication problems. What is a systematic revie Therefore, a clear, logical, and well-defined research question should be formulated. 2. Corpus ID: 16649577. Systematic review/meta-analysis steps include development of research question and its validation, forming criteria, search strategy, searching databases, importing all results to a library and exporting to an excel sheet, protocol writing and registration, title and abstract screening, full-text screening, manual searching, extracting data and assessing its quality, data checking, conducting statistical analysis, double data checking, manuscript writing, revising, and submitting to a journal. The massive abundance of studies relating to tropical medicine and health has increased strikingly over the last few decades. The Quick And Easy To Job Hunting Mastery - The 4-step System, In Only Job Hunting Mastery - The 4-step System.Job Hunting Mastery - The 4-step SystemAll product & service details and prices are on the website. Define inclusion and exclusion criteria. For more assurance on the quality of results, the analyzed data should be rechecked from full-text data by evidence photos, to allow an obvious check for the PI of the study. The steps necessary to perform a systematic review are fully explained, including the study purpose, search methodology, data extraction, reporting of results, identification of bias, and reporting of the study's main findings. volume 47, Article number: 46 (2019) Determining the scope and questions 3. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Most standards recommend, and, in some cases, require, multiple reviewers to provide the necessary expertise for a systematic review, and to help reduce bias in the search and selection process. You need to transfer all PDFs into a single folder; Import the XML reference files with PDFs into Covidence In the Review Summary dashboard under Full text review, select: (number of) Studies to screen Currently, the vaccine for EVD is being developed and under phase I, II, and III clinical trials; we want to know whether this vaccine is safe and can induce sufficient immunogenicity to the subjects. Rev Med Virol. PROSPERO protocol template file. Naunheim MR, Remenschneider AK, Scangas GA, Bunting GW, Deschler DG. If you are considering doing a systematic review or meta-analysis, this step-by-step guide aims to support you along the way. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. Baseline characteristics of the patients in the included studies. 2018;28(4):e1979. Subgroup, sensitivity, cumulative analyses, and meta-regression are appropriate for testing whether the results are consistent or not and investigating the effect of certain confounders on the outcome and finding the best predictors. It is not easy to be done as there are obstacles that could face the researcher. Formulate the research question – Like any research process, a clear, unambiguous research question will help set the direction for your study, i.e. Systematic Reviews Barbara Kitchenham e-mail: email@example.com Joint Technical Report Software Engineering Group Department of Computer Science Keele University Keele, Staffs ST5 5BG, UK Keele University Technical Report TR/SE-0401 ISSN:1353-7776 and Empirical Software Engineering National ICT Australia Ltd. Bay 15 Locomotive Workshop Australian Technology Park Garden Street, … 4. For (TIF 20 kb), Figure S2. Sensitivity analysis is a procedure used to discover how different values of an independent variable will influence the significance of a particular dependent variable by removing one study from MA. Systematic Literature Review In contrast to the traditional or narrative review, systematic reviews employ a more rigorous and well-defined approach to reviewing the literature in a specific subject area. In case any disagreement has occurred, the final decision has to be made by discussion. Most of the equations that can be used in extraction prior to analysis and estimation of standard deviation (SD) from other variables is found inside Additional file 5: File S2 with their references as Hozo et al. To do the meta-analysis, we can use free software, such as RevMan  or R package meta . To evaluate publication bias related to the meta-analysis of adverse events of arthralgia, we can use the metabias function from the R meta package (Additional file 4: Figure S4) and visualization using a funnel plot. The R codes and its guidance for meta-analysis done can be found in Additional file 5: File S3. 2016;126(12):2752–7. Systematic reviews/syntheses Descriptive or narrative reviews Annotated bibliographies A list of paper summaries; no synthesis here. CRD’s original guidance for undertaking systematic reviews was first published in 1996 and revised in 2001. Writing a protocol enables you to plan how you will answer your research question. Systematic Reviews. A systematic review is reproducible research methodology with a clear process. Systematic reviews provide a synthesis of evidence for a specific topic of interest, summarising the results of multiple studies to aid in clinical decisions and resource allocation. The methods and steps necessary to conduct a systematic review are presented in a core chapter (Chapter 1). We describe here three consecutive methods to increase and refine the yield of manual searching: firstly, searching reference lists of included articles; secondly, performing what is known as citation tracking in which the reviewers track all the articles that cite each one of the included articles, and this might involve electronic searching of databases; and thirdly, similar to the citation tracking, we follow all “related to” or “similar” articles. File S1. I. It does not cover any advice on assessing studies e.g. Cite this article. Briefly, it would be articles which contain information answering our research question. The question should be precise and it should help identify studies to be included in the review. We must indicate clearly the population (P), then intervention (I) or exposure. Select Grey Literature Sources 4. The steps in a systematic review Step 1: Framing questions for a review The problems to be addressed by the review should be specified in the form of … Sterne JAC, Hernán MA, Reeves BC, Savović J, Berkman ND, Viswanathan M, et al. Systematic Reviews. A systematic review is a summary of the research literature that • uses explicit, replicable methods to identify relevant studies, and then • uses objective techniques to analyze those studies. 2016;125(6):478–84. 2011. The ordering of the databases depends mostly on the review questions; being in a study of clinical trials, you will rely mostly on Cochrane, mRCTs, or International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Review articles, systematic reviews and meta-analyses: which can be trusted? The amount of studies published in the biomedical literature, especially tropical medicine and health, has increased strikingly over the last few decades. Parahoo (2006) suggests that a systematic 2011;343:d5928. If all included study p values are < 0.05, hence, removing any study will not change the significant association. BMC Med Res Methodol. The goal of a systematic review is to limit bias in the identification, evaluation and synthesis of the body of relevant studies that address a specific research question. The green box represents the effect size (in this case, OR) of each study. Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis statement, Sample, Phenomenon of Interest, Design, Evaluation, Research type. Each of the abovementioned methods can be performed by 2–3 independent reviewers, and all the possible relevant article must undergo further scrutiny against the inclusion criteria, after following the same records yielded from electronic databases, i.e., title/abstract and full-text screening. Many search engines provide links for free to access full-text articles. Reviews should never be done in any other way. the basic steps for conducting a systematic review: initial planning, conducting the search, data extraction, and quality analysis. RevMan The Cochrane Collaboration %J Copenhagen TNCCTCC. 2009;339:b2535. Random effect model forest plot for comparison of vaccine A versus placebo. It is recommended that researchers send it to the principal investigator (PI) to revise it, then upload it to registry sites. CAS statement and ROBINS-I: a tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions. Vibratory stimulus reduces in vitro biofilm formation on tracheoesophageal voice prostheses. Schwarzer GJRn. In this step, duplications will be removed manually whenever the reviewers find them out. A systematic review is a means of identifying, evaluating and interpreting all available research relevant to a particular research question, or topic area, or phenomenon of interest. This massive abundance of literature makes clinical medicine increasingly complex, and knowledge from various researches is often needed to inform a particular clinical decision. If we ignore this step, our study could be canceled whenever we find out a similar study published before. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s41182-019-0165-6, Systematic reviews and meta-analysis for tropical medicine and health. Due to the expected human error and bias, we recommend a data checking step, in which every included article is compared with its counterpart in an extraction sheet by evidence photos, to detect mistakes in data. 3 an example of a forest plot from the simulated analysis. Terms and Conditions, The Centre for Reviews and Dissemination at York estimates that a team will take 9-24 months to complete a systematic review. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This step involves: 1) extracting relevant information from included documents (e.g., guidelines, systematic reviews and single studies ); 2) summarizing the overall results from included documents; and 3) formalizing conclusions. There are many troubles that a researcher could be struggled with which has no detailed indication. Article We hope that readers could gain general knowledge about how to conduct a SR/MA and have the confidence to perform one, although this kind of study requires complex steps compared to narrative reviews. While doing this step, we identify a systematic review and meta-analysis of determinant factors influencing antibody response from vaccination of Ebola vaccine in non-human primate and human , which is a relevant paper to read to get a deeper insight and identify gaps for better formulation of our research question or purpose. Tropical Medicine and Health An example for Google Scholar advanced search for our topic is as follows: With at least one of the words: vaccine vaccination vaccinated immunization, Where my words occur: in the title of the article. Planning a Cochrane Review III. The role of evidence-based medicine in biomedical research is rapidly growing. Wondering how to conduct a systematic review? The first step involves identifying the subject of the literature review. Gross L, Lhomme E, Pasin C, Richert L, Thiebaut R. Ebola vaccine development: systematic review of pre-clinical and clinical studies, and meta-analysis of determinants of antibody response variability after vaccination. Eligibility criteria are based on the PICO approach, study design, and date. Doing a Systematic Review by Rumona Dickson; Angela Boland; M. Gemma Cherry (Editor) Great book for Masters or a PhD students conducting a systematic review for your dissertation or thesis. Table S4. Assuming that from searching and data extraction, we decided to do an analysis to evaluate Ebola vaccine “A” safety and immunogenicity. All the explained methods feature the standards followed internationally, with our compiled experience in the conduct of SR beside it, which we think proved some validity. Doing a Systematic Review by Rumona Dickson; Angela Boland; M. Gemma Cherry (Editor) Great book for Masters or a PhD students conducting a systematic review for your dissertation or thesis. Giang HTN, Banno K, Minh LHN, Trinh LT, Loc LT, Eltobgy A, et al. Additionally, we advise not to use terms for the Outcomes as their inclusion might hinder the database being searched to retrieve eligible studies because the used outcome is not mentioned obviously in the articles. As a researcher, you should be cautious of any bias you might introduce into the review by adding certain inclusion or exclusion criteria. 2014;2. Furthermore, despite the increasing guidelines for effectively conducting a systematic review, we found that basic steps often start from framing question, then identifying relevant work which consists of criteria development and search for articles, appraise the quality of included studies, summarize the evidence, and interpret the results [2, 3]. Review Manager (RevMan). IWH systematic review steps and stakeholder engagement (Irvin, Van Eerd et al, 2010; Keown, Van Eerd & Irvin, 2008) Step 1: Develop the question. Similarly, the number of included articles has to be stated before addition to the overall included records. Graphs should be formulated is, with a problem that has been gained that they have no interests. A steps in systematic review pdf enables you to useful resources provided by CCACE researchers and external.. Ad, et al is 0.74, indicating symmetry of the funnel plot comparison. 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